The greenhouse gas emissions of each fuel type have been indicatively compared. The goal was to indicate quantitatively how selected fuel types in the current Swedish market compare with each other in terms of greenhouse gas, GHG emissions, accounting all stages in the vehicle and fuel life cycle, i.e. production of vehicles, use phase of 200 000 km and the vehicle end-of-life. In addition to conventional fuels and electricity, biofuels and hydrogen were included.
The study shows that HVO100, biogas and battery electricity powered vehicles can have three times lower climate impact than cars using conventional fuels.
The modelled results based on open source data of GHG emissions range from 9 to 37 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent during a vehicle’s full life cycle from production and use to the end-of-life treatment in the Swedish market. The sensitivity analyses show large variations of GHG emissions among the same fuel type produced from different in-feed sources, which can be further strengthened by assumptions on the production stage.
The results are an outcome of a model based on publicly available open data sources. The assumptions and limitations of sources used in the model directly affect the modelled results and therefore, for interpreting the results, getting acquainted with the assumptions behind the model’s main sources is encouraged. Due to data scarcity, sources with heterogeneous assumptions were accepted, and thus, the results should be interpreted as indicative.