Small modular reactors (SMRs) is a type of nuclear fission reactor which is smaller than conventional reactors, manufactured in a plant and then brought to a nuclear site to be assembled. Modular reactors allow for less on-site construction, increased containment efficiency, and heightened nuclear materials security. SMRs have been proposed as a less expensive alternative to conventional nuclear reactors.
Recent RnD shows that it is possible to utilize considerable amounts of demand flexibility in district heating grids. With an extended system boundary that includes buildings, district heating grids, and connection to electricity grids, a co-optimization can be performed that creates great economic value for the economy as well as the environment.
Research shows that a faster energy measurement gives a better picture of the power requirement. This makes it possible to control the delivery of heat better and to reduce the use of facilities for top load, which contributes to achieving current environmental and climate goals.
The electrical connection of the different nuclear power plants in Finland and Sweden has been reviewed in terms of their single line diagrams and how they are connected to the grid.